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It is extremely important to cite your sources.  If you do not cite your sources you are plagiarizing.

Where to Site

You must cite your sources for:

        -a direct quote or paraphrasing someone else's words

        -someone's interpretation of an event

You do not have to cite for:

        -ideas that you have come up with completely on your own--you

        -facts that are common knowledge (for example, you do not have to cite the fact that Pearl Harbor was bombed on December 7, 1941)

How to Cite


Books are underlined or italicized.  Articles, poems, and movies are put in quotes.  Be careful to note the punctuation between each aspect of a citation.  In some places it is appropriate to uses commas, in others colons, and in still others periods.  A general rule is that each entry should end with a period.  This page features MLA style citations.

Endnotes and Footnotes

Endnotes are found at the end of the paper but before the bibliography.  Endnotes go from 1, 2, 3.....n chronologically throughout the paper.  Each number does not refer to one source.  Footnotes are written in the same format as endnotes.  The only difference is footnotes appear at the bottom of each page whereas endnotes appear at the end of the article. 

    How to write an endnote/footnote

        1Author's first name last name,  Title (city of publication: publisher, year of copyright) page number.

        1Claudia Leahy, The Life and Times of Claudia Leahy (Yale: Yale Publications, 2004) 14.

Bibliography and Works Cited

A bibliography is a listing of all the books you have used in researching your topic.  A works cited, on the other hand, only contains the works that you have cited in your report.  Thus, a bibliography is inherently longer than a works cited.

    How to write a bibliography

        The books are listed in alphabetical order according to the author's last name.  It should be double-spaced and the first line of each entry  

            is indented.

                Author's last name, Author's first name.  Title.  City: Publisher, year of copyright.

                King, Stephen.  Black House.  New York: Random, 2001.

For more information on citing books with more than one author, websites, etc. please visit  This website features MLA style, which is what I have used on this page.

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